Copyright 2023 SQS

School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS)
UUM College of Arts & Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
06010 UUM Sintok
Kedah, Malaysia
Tel: +604-9286301
Tel: +604-9286309


Published 2023


All right reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to produce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher.



Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia - Cataloging-Publication Data

The 4th Young Researchers' Quantitative Symposium (2022: Sintok)

e-Proceedings of the 4th Young Researchers' Quantitative Symposium (YRQS2022):
Nurturing Creative and Analytical Thinking Towards Sustainable Living: 11 January 2022,
Virtual Symposium/
Editors: Rosnalini Mansor, Nazihah Ahmad, Neendha Cheah Soo Thape & Shahidah Othman
e-ISBN 978-967-2276-45-6
1. Quantitative Research
2. Nurturing Creative and Analytical Thinking
3. Sustainable Living
4. Young Researchers

Graphic Designer:
Neendha Cheah Soo Thape


Disclaimer: Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that the material in this book is true, correct, complete, and appropriate at the time of writing. Nevertheless, the publishers, the editors, and the authors do not accept responsibility for any omission or error, or for any injury, damage, lose, or financial consequences arising from the use of the book. The views expressed by contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS), Universiti Utara Malaysia.


Associate Professor Dr. Mohd Kamal Mohd Nawawi
Dean of SQS

Associate Professor Dr. Nazihah Ahmad

Dr. Ayu Abdul Rahman

Miss Zakiah Habib

Madam Yuhaniz Ahmad

Dr. Rosnalini Mansor
Miss Neendha Cheah Soo Thape
Miss Shahidah Othman
Associate Professor Dr. Zakiyah Zain

Dr. Wan Laailatul Hanim
Miss Zakiah Hashim
Miss Umi Salamah Ahmad
Mr. Choo Chun Yuan

Ts. Dr. Fazillah Kamal
Dr. Norhayati Yusof
Mr. Ahmad Afiq Iqmal

Dr. Saadi Ahmad Kamaruddin
Prof. Dr. Razamin Ramli
Mr. Mohd Amir Adeeb
Mr. Ahmed Abdel Aziz Elsayed
Mr. Mohamad Sufian
Mr. Mohd Aliff Haikal Halim
Mr. Mohd Aliff Haikal Halim
Miss Nur Fathihah Salmizi
Miss Siti Syafiqah Harun
Miss Tengku Nurul Aimi
Miss Fatnin Nadiah Yunus
Miss Nurul Najwa Fatihah

The 4th Young Researchers’ Quantitative Symposium 2022 (YRQS 2022) is organized by the School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia. YRQS 2022 was held virtually on the 11th of January 2022. This symposium is indeed integral to our continuous effort in encouraging young researchers to share and exchange knowledge of the most recent theories, issues, and practices in the field of quantitative sciences. In this era of modern sustainable education, creative thinking and creative problem solving shall be emphasized in teaching and learning activities. This is relevant to this year’s theme which is "Nurturing Creative and Analytical Thinking Towards Sustainable Living".

Notably, creative and analytical thinking are vital in cultivating young minds. Therefore, this symposium highlights the relevance of the Sustainable Development Goals 4 (Quality Education), 5 (Gender Equality) and 9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure). As such, Nurturing Creative and Analytical Thinking Towards Sustainable Living has been chosen as this year’s theme. After a careful peer review process, the YRQS 2022 proceeding publishes 23 articles covering various topics namely pure and applied mathematics, applied statistics, decision science, and related quantitative research.

We would like to thank all authors for their contribution to this publication and reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. We hope that this publication will provide the reader a broad overview of related research topics, and be a valuable resource for further research.


YRQS 2022 Proceedings Committee