Copyright 2021 SQS

School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS)
UUM College of Arts & Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
06010 UUM Sintok
Kedah, Malaysia
Tel: +604-9286301
Tel: +604-9286309


Second Published 2021

All right reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to produce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher.



Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia - Cataloging-Publication Data

The 3rd Young Researchers' Quantitative Symposium (YRQS2021: Sintok)

e-Proceedings of the 3rd Young Researchers' Quantitative Symposium 2021: Enriching Knowledge and Innovation through Quantitative Sciences: 12 January 2021, School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS), Universiti Utara Malaysia

Editors: Hashibah Hamid, Sharmila Karim, Nik Nadhilah Nik Mohd Yusoff & Nur Hazera Md Radzi

e-ISBN 9789672276425
1. Quantitative Research
2. Enriching Knowledge and Innovation
3. Young Researchers

Graphic Designer:
Mazlan Mohd Sappri


Disclaimer: Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that the material in this book is true, correct, complete, and appropriate at the time of writing. Nevertheless, the publishers, the editors, and the authors do not accept responsibility for any omission or error, or for any injury, damage, lose, or financial consequences arising from the use of the book. The views expressed by contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS), Universiti Utara Malaysia.


Prof. Madya Dr. Mohd Kamal bin Mohd Nawawi (Dean of SQS)

Prof. Madya Dr. Hashibah binti Hamid

Cik Nur Hazera binti Md. Radzi

Dr. Nur Azulia binti Kamarudin

Proceedings & Publication
Prof. Madya Dr. Hashibah binti Hamid
Dr. Sharmila binti Karim
Puan Nik Nadhilah binti Nik Mohd Yusoff
Cik Nur Hazera binti Md. Radzi

Dr. Ayu binti Abdul Rahman
Cik Shahira binti Shafie
En. Musthaza bin Muhammad
Cik Nuril Asyikin binti Mohamad

Website & Promotion
Dr. Mazlan bin Mohd Sappri
En. Afnan Aizzat bin Adnan

Prof. Madya Dr. Hashibah binti Hamid

Congratulations to all UUM students who have successfully presented their work at the 3rd Young Researchers’ Quantitative Symposium (YRQS 2021) that was held virtually on 12 January 2021. I am pleased to have witnessed a good number of papers, from both our Postgraduate and final year Undergraduate students. In line with the theme of the symposium, “Enriching Knowledge and Innovation through Quantitative Sciences”, the papers demonstrate the students’ academic knowledge and novelty in their work especially in the aspect of quantitative sciences. Theories and applications of quantitative science areas were discussed and presented in YRQS 2021 and documented in the corresponding articles. To ensure access and ease of sharing of these academic knowledge, YRQS 2021 has compiled the articles into e-proceeding.

I sincerely hoped that this event will develop students’ interest in research and further improve their communication skills in the form of scientific writing and oral presentation. Also, it is with great hope that the symposium will continue to be held annually and thus, provide a platform for nurturing great minds!


Thank you for all the support given to YRQS 2021 ^=^


Chairman of YRQS 2021