Copyright 2021 SQS

School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS)
UUM College of Arts & Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
06010 UUM Sintok
Kedah, Malaysia
Tel: +604-9286301
Tel: +604-9286309


First Published 2021


All right reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to produce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher.




Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia - Cataloging-Publication Data

The 2nd Young Researchers' Quantitative Symposium (2019: Sintok)

e-Proceedings of the 2nd Young Researchers' Quantitative Symposium (YRQS2019):
Progressing Quantitative Research towards Sustainable Future: 26 November 2019,
School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS), Universiti Utara Malaysia/
Editors: Syariza Abdul-Rahman, Norhafiza Mohd Noor & Zakiah Hashim
e-ISBN 978-967-2276-41-8
1. Quantitative Research
2. Progress
3. Sustainable Future

Graphic Designer:
Nor Akaliah Shaharudin


Disclaimer: Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that the material in this book is true, correct, complete, and appropriate at the time of writing. Nevertheless, the publishers, the editors, and the authors do not accept responsibility for any omission or error, or for any injury, damage, lose, or financial consequences arising from the use of the book. The views expressed by contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS), Universiti Utara Malaysia.


Associate Professor Dr. Mohd Kamal Mohd Nawawi
Dean of SQS

Associate Professor Dr. Syariza Abdul Rahman

Zakiah Hashim

Nor Akaliah Shaharudin

Norhafiza Mohd Noor

Farah Sofiya Ilyana Ruzzaman

Muhamad Syafiq Abdul Ghani

Nurul Nabilah Mohd Razif

Ahmad Aliy Soffian Mohd Yusoff

We welcome you to join us for our 2nd Young Researchers’ Quantitative Symposium 2019 (YRQS 2019). This symposium humbly acts as a platform for both undergraduates and postgraduates to share, exchange and extend knowledge of their most recent theories, issues and practices related to quantitative research. The 2019 symposium theme "Progressing Quantitative Research Towards Sustainable Future” is selected as the emerging of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR4.0).

IR4.0 is important for the forthcoming revolution that may change how individuals work, play and manage themselves. Public and private institutions are confronted with different issues that are new and need to find the best strategies in managing the stakeholders. All parties - community, industry, institutions and governments need to cooperate in associating these diverse networks and prepare for future challenges. It is time for local and global networks to comprehend and appreciate each other as we live in this one major space, we call home.

After a careful peer review process, the YRQS 2019 proceeding publishes 20 articles related particularly to current theoretical and practical issues in quantitative scopes. The papers are from both undergraduates and postgraduates’ students from School of Quantitative Sciences (SQS) and other school in Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM).

Finally, we would like to thank the presenters for their willingness to share their latest work and ideas, without their efforts, this symposium would not be possible.


YRQS 2019 Proceedings Committee